The Elements usually counted as four are earth, air, fire, water. However there are many pagan traditions that add spirit or akasha to this line up as well.
Each element has a direction within a magic or casting circle, Air to the east, Water to the west, Earth to the north, Fire to the south, and in the center we place Spirit. Each is as important as the rest and symbolizom.
Earth is considered the ultimate feminine element. The earth is fertile, stable, and associated with the Goddess. The plent itself is a ball of life and as the wheel of the year turns, we all watch the aspects of life take place in the earth : birth, life, death, and finally rebirth. The earth is nurturing and stable, solid and firm, full of edurance and strength.
Air is the element of the east, connected to the soul, the very breath of life. If your doing a working related to communication, wisdom, or powers of the mind, Air is the element to focus on. Air carries away your troubles, blows away strife, and carries positive thoughts to those who are far away.
Fire is a purifying, masculine energy, associated with the south and connected to strong will and energy. Fire both creates and destroys, as such it symbolizes the fertility of the God. Fire can heal or harm and can bring about new life or destroy the old or worn.
Water is a feminine energy and highly connected with the aspects of the Goddess. It is used for healing, cleansing, and purification. Water is associated with passion and emotion. In many covens blessed water (water with a bit of salt added and a blessing or invocation said over it) is used to consecrate the circle and all the tools within it.